Jumat, 30 Desember 2011

BeasiswaOnline.net: Erasmus Mundus EXPERTS Scholarships, Europe

EXPERTS is a scholarship projects funded by the European Commission targeted at citizens of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

In accordance with the EMA2 call, the objective of the EXPERTS project is to facilitate collaborations between Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) from South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) and EU through the exchange of information in science and policy issues while sharing key issues of sustainable development in academic cooperation.

The project provides the following mobility scholarships from South and South-East Asia to European partner universities (Please note- there are no scholarships from EU to SSEA)-

Undergraduate and graduate students
PhD students
PostDocs
Staff (both academic and administrative)
The EXPERTS aims to establish an innovative framework for capacity development of junior faculty staff, undergraduates, postgraduates, and postdoc researchers through training and upgrading their skills in specified fields of study through a scheme of structured mobility.

Note:

In order to be an elegible candidate, you must have not resided nor have carried out your main activity (studies, work, etc.) for more than a total of 12 months over the last five years in one of the European countries.
No student, and no academic staff member can benefit from more than one mobility activity within the same project.
There are no mobility flows for students and academic staff between institutions in SSEA countries of the partnership. Mobility is only from SSEA countries to Europe.
This project places an emphasis on research and cooperation, establishing collaborative framework for human resource development through training and upgrading the skills of junior faculty staff, undergraduates, postgraduates and postdoc researchers by specified learning objectives in the field of engineering and technology, agricultural sciences, environmental studies, business-management and social sciences. The implementation of individual mobilities, with special emphasis to research initiatives, will provide students from SSEA regions with mobility for a broader choice of opportunities for study experience in EU higher education institutions. We anticipate to further strengthen our cooperation and to develop new areas of cooperation in harmonizing innovative research as well as continuous actions for transparency and comparability between the different HE systems in EU and SSEA countries under EM Action 2. By applying ECTS standards to the exchanges, the transparency and recognition of studies and qualifications will be improved and the know-how on the Bologna process disseminated.

The consortium has chosen to include 4 countries from group A (Bhutan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan) and 6 countries from group B (China, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Thailand). All together, the consortium consists of 13 universities from SSEA and 7 universities from EU allowing the coverage of as many subject areas as possible. The associates are chosen as they are the network of universities (such as in Asia- SEARCA and in Europe: COIMBRA Group, AGRINATURA), which ensure the effective dissemination of information about the project.

Academic fields of study within the EXPERTS II project:

Main areas of study:

Agricultural sciences
Architecture, urban and regional planning
Business studies and management sciences
Education and teacher training
Engineering, technology
Geography, Geology
Law
Medical Sciences
Natural Sciences
Social Sciences
Other areas of study:

Physical education and Sport Science
Peisure Studies
Home Economics and Nutrition
Nautical Science and Navigation
Target Group 1
Undergraduate, master and doctorate students, post-doctorates, and academic and administrative staff that contribute to the overall topics of the EXPERTS project in research and cooperation from the partner universities that are participating from SSEA region. The candidate must be registered at the home university at the time of application and in case of undergraduate students- they must have successfully completed at least one year of studies in their home institution.

Targeted mobilities: undergraduate, master, doctorate, post-doctorate and staff (academic & administrative)

Target Group 2
Master, doctorate students, and post-doctorates of non partner universities from SSEA region (concerned by lot 11) and graduates from the partner universities, oriented to the topic of the EXPERTS project in research and cooperation.

Targeted mobilities: master, doctorate and post-doctorate

Target Group 3
Master and doctoral students belonging to minority groups that provide proposals that increase cooperation and research through innovation in their regions will be sought in this category.

Some of the examples may include:

Candidates having a refugee status or asylum beneficiaries (international or according to the national legislation of one of the European recipient countries);
Candidates, who have been an object of unjustified expulsion from university on racial, ethnic, religious, political, gender or sexual inclination;
Candidates, who belong to an indigenous population targeted by a specific national policy or IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons).
Targeted mobilities: master and doctorate

Note:

Only Candidates of the following nationalities are eligible to apply: Bangladesh – Bhutan – China – India – Indonesia – Nepal – Pakistan – Sri Lanka – the Philippines – Thailand
In order to be an eligible candidate, you must have not resided nor have carried out your main activity (studies, work, etc.) for more than a total of 12 months over the last five years in one of the European countries.
No student, and no academic staff member can benefit from more than one mobility activity within the same project.
There are no mobility flows for student and academic staff between institutions in SSEA countries of the partnership. Mobility is only from SSEA countries to Europe.
Expected start date- Grantees nominated for the EXPERTS II scholarship in 2012 have to begin their scholarship by 31 December 2012. Exchange Undergraduate and Master Students follow the semester structures of the Host Universities. For timeframes, please refer to the Host Universities’ websites.

List of Documents required:

Copy of passport or other official identification proof
Proof of the language of instruction proficiency
Copy of the most recent academic records-transcripts (current students)
Copies of the Higher Education certificates or Diplomas obtained prior to the current study (current and former students and Staff)
Sample of a publication (where relevant)
At least 2 recommendation letters
Motivation Letter for each Host University indicated
Research Proposal (Doctorate and Post Doctorate Candidates only)
CV (EUROPASS Format)
For TG3 – proof of vulnerable situation
- For full degree, please refer to the Host Universities‘ websites for details on the programmes‘ application deadlines. Please make sure you respect the EXPERTS II application deadline and separately the Host University specific programme application deadline.

- Language of tuition requirements – a proof of the language of instruction at the Host University has to be presented. In case of exchange Candidates, an official proof of the language skills issued by the Home University is sufficient, whereas degree-seeking Candidates should submit an official and recognized language assessment proof – please refer to the Host Universities’ website or contact the Host University directly for details on the language requirements.

- Doctorate, Post-Doctorate and Staff Candidates are encouraged to establish a communication with respected Host University department, an academic or a research group prior to the application. Letter of Invitation, if obtained, should be attached to the application form.

- Difficult economic situation – Candidates in difficult economic situation are encouraged to inform the Consortium on the situation in the online application, in the motivation letter. A proof of the difficult economic situation may be required.

TG3 Candidates are required to provide the proof of the vulnerable situation in the application form.

EU Universities

Georg-August Universität Göttingen- Coordinator
Ms. Agnieszka Buelens
Project Coordinator
Göttingen International (GI)
Von-Siebold-Str. 4
37075 Göttingen
Tel: +49 551 39 22282
Fax: +49 551 39 14254
Email: agnieszka.buelens@zvw.uni-goettingen.de

Official Website


Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
Ms. Vicky Wandels
International Policy Unit
Naamsestraat 63
Leuven, Belgium
Email: Vicky.Wandels@int.kuleuven.be
Official Website

Masaryk University
Ms. Violeta Osouchova
Erasmus Mundus Coordinator
Office for International Studies
Komenského nám. 2
602 00 Brno, Czech Republic
Tel: ++420 549 49 5878
Fax: ++420 549 49 1113
Email: osouchova@czs.muni.cz
Official Website

Universidad Santiago de Compostela
Ms. Lorena Barbeitio Barciela
International Office
15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Official Website


Politecnico di Torino
Ms. Bianca Buttiglione
Department of International Affairs
International Projects and Development Cooperation
Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24
10129 Torino, Italy
Fax: + 39 011 090 8644
Email: bianca.buttiglione@polito.it
Official Website

University of Turku
Ms. Liisa Aho
International Office
Fi-20014 Turku, Finland
Email: liisa.aho@utu.fi
Official Website

Uppsala University
Gustaf Cars
International Office
Box 256
SE-751 05 Uppsala
Sweden
Tel: +46 18 471 22 20
Fax: +46 18 471 16 00
Email: erasmusmundus@uadm.uu.se
Official Website
Skype: gustaf_iro_uu
Official Website

South and South-Eastern Asian- Universities

Royal University of Bhutan
Mr. Nima Dukpa
Dean, Students Affairs
College of Science and Technology
PO Box 450, Rinchending
Phuenthsoling, Bhutan
Tel: +975 5 240056
Email: nimadukpa@cst.edu.bt
Official Website

Kathmandu University
Prof. Dr. Bhadraman Tuladhar
Registrar
Dhulikhel, Kavre
PO Box 6250, Nepal
Email: info@ku.edu.np
Official Website

Tribhuvan University
Prof. Keshab Datt Awasthi
Dean Institute of Forestry
Pokhara Kaski, PO Box 43, Nepal
Tel: +977 61 430026
Email: awasthikd@gmail.com
Official Website

Khulna University
Dr. Md. Golam Rakkibu
Professor, Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline
9208 Khulna
Bangladesh
Tel: +88 041 720171-3 ext. 2010
Fax: +88 041 731244 (university)
Email: golamrakkibu@yahoo.co.uk
grakkib@gwdg.de
Official Website

University of the Punjab
Dr. Nadeem Sheikh
Assistant Professor
Department of Zoology
University of the Punjab
54590 Lahore
Pakistan
Email: s_nadeem77@yahoo.com
Official Website

Pune University
Dr. Vasudha Garde
Director
International Center
Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411007, India
Email: intcentdir@unipune.ernet.in
Official Website

Delhi University
Prof. Navnita Chadha Behera
Department of Political Science
110001 New Delhi, India
Email: polscience.du@gmail.com
Official Website

University of Peradeniya
Prof. Anoma Abhayaratne
Dean
Faculty of Arts
20400 Paradeniya, Sri Lanka
Email: deanarts@pdn.ac.lk
Official Website

Bogor Agricultural University
Prof. Dr. Anas Miftah Fauzi
Vice Rector for Research and Collaboration
Rectorat Building, IPB Campus
Bogor, Indonesia
Tel: +62-2 518 622 637
Email: fauzianas@yahoo.com
Official Website

Kasetsart University
Dr. Somsakdi Tabtimthong
Director
International Affairs Division
50 Phaholyothin Road
Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Tel: +66-2 942 8171
Fax: +66-2 942 8170
E-mail: fro@nontri.ku.ac.th and psdsst@ku.ac.th
(Foreign Relations Office)
Official Website

Visayas State University
Dr. Victor B. Asio
Professor of Soil Science & Geo-ecology
Dean, College of Agriculture
Baybay City, Leyte 6521-A, Philippines
Tel: +63-53-335-2627
TeleFax: +63-53-563-7107
Email: vbasio.asio@daad-alumni.de
vbasio_ph@yahoo.com
Official Website

Nanjing University
Cai Dandan
Program Officer
Office of International Cooperation and Exchanges
Room 101, Shuhua Building / Gulou Campus / 22 Hankou Road / Nanjing 210093
China
Tel: +86-25 83592606
Fax: +86-25 83307680
Email: ddcai@nju.edu.cn
Official Website

University of Science and Technology of China (USTC)
Zhou Zhengkai, Deputy Director/ Lynn Qiu, Programme Officer
International Office
Hefei, Anhui 230026
P. R. of China
Tel: +86-551-3602848
Fax: +86-551-3632579
Email: zkzhow@ustc.edu.cn; lynnqiu@ustc.edu.cn
Official Website

The deadline for applications is 16:00 CET on 10 February 2012

For more information, please visit official website.

Posted in: Fellowships
Original post : BeasiswaOnline.net: Erasmus Mundus EXPERTS Scholarships, Europe: EXPERTS is a scholarship projects funded by the European Commission targeted at citizens of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Indonesia, N...

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Kamis, 29 Desember 2011

15 Gaya ABG Sebelum ada hp, SMS, Chatting, dan Facebook ( NOSTALGIA )

15 Gaya ABG Sebelum ada hp, SMS, Chatting, dan Facebook ( NOSTALGIA ) Masa-masa belum kenal internet, yang punya telpon rumah masih jarang itu juga pesawatnya model yang puteran bukan yang pencet-pencet, ponsel apalagi,
tapi semua itu tak bikin kita mati gaya.

Seperti kata orang bijak:
"bila ada keinginan pasti ada jalan".
"Apa, jalan buntu maksud loe ..?"

Bila dalam bahasa Inggris:
If there is a will there is a why,
artinya
"Ngapain aja sih loe?"


Gaya ABG Sebelum Ada Hp & Internet
1. Naksir, ingin menembak si dia

Pura-pura pinjam buku, lalu kembaliin plus "bonus" puisi cinta (dibikinin teman sih yang disogok pake permen endog cecak). Jadi ingat lagunya Iwan Fals- Buku ini Aku Pinjam.

Agak frontal dikit, menaruh surat cinta di laci mejanya. Lebih telak lagi, bikin pesawat-pesawatan dari kertas, komplit dengan tulisan "I love you pulll", awas saat mengirimnya jangan sampai nyasar mendarat di hidung guru BP yang sedang memberi penyuluhan di kelas... Habis itu harap-harap cemas menanti surat .... penolakan ... wakakaka ....

Gimana lebih enak ditolak lewat surat kan ketimbang lewat SMS, bisa dikumpulin buat kenangan koleksi penolakan yang kesekian ... wakakak ... Tentu saja mekanisme pengiriman pesan tersebut rawan penyadapan, dan bisa salah tembak.

Maunya mengirim ke Susan, jatuhnya kok ke tangan Susanto .. wah bisa berabe ... Ingat Jean Pattikawa nyanyi, "Surat cintaku yang pertama, membikin hatiku berlomba ....", atau Kangen, "Kau Tuliskan Padaku Kata Cinta Yang Manis Dalam Suratmu ...", atau Kahitna, "Suratku ini, cerminan luka di hati ..." Kalau sekarang mungkin liriknya berubah kali, jadi "Email cintaku yang pertama, membikin hatiku berlomba ..." Yang jatuh cinta, suratnya disemprot parfum biar wangi, lha yang putus cinta?
Ya disemprot Baygon saja ... upss janngan deh...

2. Mau kirim-kirim salam


Pulang sekolah mampir dulu ke kantor Stasion Radio untuk nitip pesan. Sore-sore siap di depan radio sambil pasang kuping nunggu pesannya dibacain, "Ya, buat paman gembul, nirmala dan donal bebek, tadi di kelas paman gober marah-marah melulu, hati-hati dengan si sirik, buat don kisot kembaliin kaset genesis gue, buat penyiarnya yang rukun aja ya ...,dari ikkyu san di planet krypton ....
oya titip lagu madu dan racunnya Ari Wibowo ...
spesial buat samwan yang tega meninggalkanku ...."
Puas deh rasanya ...,
padahal yang dikirimin pesan lagi pada molor semua ....
Makanya lain kali jangan cuma kirim salam,
tapi kirim juga laos, temulawak, kunir, dll .... lho?

3. Mau menelpon lokal siapkan kepengan, dulu sih seratusan perak, yang tipis lho bukan yang tebal.


Sambil cari-cari telpon umum yang masih utuh, soalnya ada yang cuma tinggal gagangnya doang, ada juga yang "interior" masih utuh, jebulnya di atas nggak nyambung ke kabel telpon. Kadang nemu yang jalan, eh dipake tempat pacaran, atau berteduh waktu hujan.

Pernah sih nunggu orang selesai telpon, eh dianya ngeluarin recehan segepok taruh di atas pesawat telpon. Ya udah deh, nyari lainnya aja .... Eh malah diajarin anak-anak kecil ngunthet koin pake kawat, hayooo .... Masih ingat pesan nan "mengharukan" ini, "Tiga menit waktu anda sudah habis, silakan masukkan koin lagi ..."
Duh, koinnya dah habis buat main dingdong .....

4. Mau menelpon interlokal
Begadang nunggu di atas jam sepuluh malam, atau bangun jam empat pagi, lalu buru-buru ke wartel, biar dapat tarif murah/diskon. Saya ingat ketika itu, wartel masih jarang, bahkan kadang harus absen dulu terus pulang lagi ke rumah, dua jam lagi baru balik dan sampai gilirannya, saking banyaknya yang antri. Jadi ada wartel yang tiap malam selalu ramai, mirip agen porkas mau bukaan saja.

5. Menerima telpon
Bagi anak kost yang cari tempat kost, biasanya punya pertanyaan tambahan, "Ada telpon?". Soalnya bisa numpang menerima telpon di tempat ibu kost. Siap-siap pagi-pagi jam empat dipanggil-panggil ada telpon interlokal dari kampung. Paling diledekin teman kost, "Tuh ... kau disuruh buruan pulang, mau dikimpoikan dengan calon pilihan ibu kau ...." Ada juga yang gemar ngerjain di kost, kalau ada telpon dari cewek. Nggak mungkin deh punya rahasia, lha wong telpon masuk siapa-darimana seisi kost tahu semua (terutama ibu kost),
belum yang hobi nguping ...

6. Pak Pos is my hero


Menunggu-nunggu Pak Pos datang, terutama yang sedang di perantauan, kiriman kabar dari kampuang nan jauh di mato. Juga surat dari tambatan hati, wuiihhh ada cap bibirnya segala ... Rasanya tulisan tangan plus wangi surat lebih berkesan (yah masak nulis surat cinta mesti ke rental dulu, lebih romantis tulisan ceker ayam ketimbang cetakan printer dot-matrik yang pitanya udah kusut dan mbrodholi, maklum di rental) soalnya bisa diciumi tiap hari...hihihi. Pokoknya Pak Pos is the one and only selalu dinanti meski kadang telat...

7. Mau janjian?
Pastikan tempatnya dengan jelas, supaya jangan sampai tlisiban (apa ya artinya ini? pokoknya, kau kesini, dia kesitu, kau begini, dia begitu, dia menunggu di sana, kau menunggu di situ). Konyol kan kalau janjiannya di alun-alon lor, panjenengan menunggunya di alun-alun kidul. Benarkah keberadaan ponsel sekarang meminimalkan potensi plisaban?

8. Kartu ucapan Hari raya
Nyari-nyari dan pilih-pilih kartu Lebaran atau Natal. Sebenarnya nggak apa juga sih pilih satu set yang sama, soalnya kirimnya kan ke orang yang berbeda. Ada yang kreatif, bikin sendiri kartu lebarannya digambar sendiri. Ngirim kartu biar hemat prangko, nggak usah dilem amplopnya ya ...

9. Tidak ada telpon, mau kirim berita cepat
Pilihannya adalah kilat khusus. Atau lewat telegram saja (duh, yang ini udah punah deh), oke, kma ttkhbs (ssstt ... pelajaran bahasa Indonesia di sekolah masih ada nggak cara menulis telegram?). Mau lebih hemat lagi tapi lebih cepat, ya belajar telepati aja ... hahaha ....

10. Tidur lebih nyenyak, bangun lebih enak
Coba sekarang, baru melek dikit sudah melirik ada pesan masuk tidak, ada miscalled tidak, masuk WC aja ganti dulu statusnya, pagi-pagi belum sarapan burjo sudah sarapan pulsa dulu.

11. Lebih mudah bikin alasan/ngumpet
Kalau jaman sekarang kan alasannya cuman dua, low-bat atau nggak ada sinyal. Dulu nggak ada yang protes, "Kenapa sih telpon dimatikan, nggak diangkat-angkat, SMS nggak dibales...."

12. Apa itu di dalam kantong?
Kalau saku kelihatan mblendhuk, jelas bukan batangan HP apalagi blekberi, mungkin batangan coklat atau wafer. Atau jangan-jangan nggembol sego kucing buat sangu... hihihi....

13. Lebih banyak garuk-garuk
Kalau sekarang kan waktu bengong jari bisa diberdayakan untuk pijet-pijet tombol kalo nggak ngurusin SMS kan bisa main game di ponsel. Lha dulu masak gede-gede bawa gamewatch kan nggak wangun. Sebenarnya klaim ini masih perlu riset, benarkah keberadaan ponsel mengurangi frekuensi garuk-garuk. Kalo orang Jawa bilang, "Seko kukur-kukur malih dadi tutul-tutul"

14. Mau backstreet ?
Bila perlu pakai cara pramuka, pakai bahasa sandi atau surat yang hanya bisa terbaca dengan cara khusus. Lha yang punya pesawat telpon di rumah juga ditungguin babe ama enyak

15. Sebelum mulai pelajaran
Sekarang: Harap semua ponsel dimatikan, jangan ada yang mainan SMS saat pelajaran. Dulu:
Harap semua komik di simpan, jangan ada yang baca stensilan saat pelajaran.

Referensi : habibijonsonmanonggor.blogspot.com
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Kamis, 15 Desember 2011

ERGONOMIC

Ergonomics is concerned with the ‘fit’ between computers and their technological robots and environments. It takes account of the user's capabilities and limitations in seeking to ensure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each user.




To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, ergonomists consider the job (activity) being done and the demands on the user; the equipment used (its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task), and the information used (how it is presented, accessed, and changed). Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, industrial design, kinesiology, physiology and psychology.

Typically, an ergonomist will have a BA or BS or BD in Psychology, Industrial/Mechanical Engineering or Industrial Design or Health Sciences, and usually an MA, MS or PhD in a related discipline. Many universities offer Master of Science degrees in Ergonomics, while some offer Master of Ergonomics or Master of Human Factors degrees. In the 2000s, occupational therapists have been moving into the field of ergonomics and the field has been heralded as one of the top ten emerging practice areas.[3]

According to the International Ergonomics Association within the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization:[1]

* Physical ergonomics: is concerned with human anatomy, and some of the anthropometric, physiological and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity.
* Cognitive ergonomics: is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. (Relevant topics include mental workload, decision-making, skilled performance, human-computer interaction, human reliability, work stress and training as these may relate to human-system and Human-Computer Interaction design.)
* Organizational ergonomics: is concerned with the optimization of socio technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.(Relevant topics include communication, crew resource management, work design, design of working times, teamwork, participatory design, community ergonomics, cooperative work, new work programs, virtual organizations, telework, and quality management.)

History and etymology

The foundations of the science of ergonomics appear to have been laid within the context of the culture of Ancient Greece. A good deal of evidence indicates that Greek civilization in the 5th century BC used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs, and workplaces. One outstanding example of this can be found in the description Hippocrates gave of how a surgeon's workplace should be designed and how the tools he uses should be arranged (see Marmaras, Poulakakis and Papakostopoulos, 1999).[4] It is also true that archaeological records of the early Egyptians Dynasties made tools, household equipment, among others that illustrated ergonomic principles. It is therefore questionable whether the claim by Marmaras, et al., regarding the origin of ergonomics, can be justified (I G Okorji, 2009). The term ergonomics, from Greek Έργον, meaning "work", and Νόμος, meaning "natural laws", first entered the modern lexicon when Wojciech Jastrzębowski used the word in his 1857 article Rys ergonomji czyli nauki o pracy, opartej na prawdach poczerpniętych z Nauki Przyrody (The Outline of Ergonomics, i.e. Science of Work, Based on the Truths Taken from the Natural Science).

Later, in the 19th century, Frederick Winslow Taylor pioneered the "Scientific Management" method, which proposed a way to find the optimum method for carrying out a given task. Taylor found that he could, for example, triple the amount of coal that workers were shoveling by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shoveling rate was reached. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth expanded Taylor's methods in the early 1900s to develop "Time and Motion Studies". They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4.5, allowing bricklayers to increase their productivity from 120 to 350 bricks per hour.

World War II marked the development of new and complex machines and weaponry, and these made new demands on operators' cognition. The decision-making, attention, situational awareness and hand-eye coordination of the machine's operator became key in the success or failure of a task. It was observed that fully functional aircraft, flown by the best-trained pilots, still crashed. In 1943, Alphonse Chapanis, a lieutenant in the U.S. Army, showed that this so-called "pilot error" could be greatly reduced when more logical and differentiable controls replaced confusing designs in airplane cockpits.

In the decades since the war, ergonomics has continued to flourish and diversify. The Space Age created new human factors issues such as weightlessness and extreme g-forces. How far could environments in space be tolerated, and what effects would they have on the mind and body? The dawn of the Information Age has resulted in the new ergonomics field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Likewise, the growing demand for and competition among consumer goods and electronics has resulted in more companies including human factors in product design.

The coining of the term Ergonomics, however, is now widely attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrell, at the 1949 meeting at the UK's Admiralty, which led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after the II World War.

Applications


More than twenty technical subgroups within the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society[5] (HFES) indicate the range of applications for ergonomics. Human factors engineering continues to be successfully applied in the fields of aerospace, aging, health care, IT, product design, transportation, training, nuclear and virtual environments, among others. Kim Vicente, a University of Toronto Professor of Ergonomics, argues that the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl is attributable to plant designers not paying enough attention to human factors. "The operators were trained but the complexity of the reactor and the control panels nevertheless outstripped their ability to grasp what they were seeing [during the prelude to the disaster]."

Physical ergonomics is important in the medical field, particularly to those diagnosed with physiological ailments or disorders such as arthritis (both chronic and temporary) or carpal tunnel syndrome. Pressure that is insignificant or imperceptible to those unaffected by these disorders may be very painful, or render a device unusable, for those who are. Many ergonomically designed products are also used or recommended to treat or prevent such disorders, and to treat pressure-related chronic pain.

Human factors issues arise in simple systems and consumer products as well. Some examples include cellular telephones and other hand held devices that continue to shrink yet grow more complex (a phenomenon referred to as "creeping featurism"), millions of VCRs blinking "12:00" across the world because very few people can figure out how to program them, or alarm clocks that allow sleepy users to inadvertently turn off the alarm when they mean to hit 'snooze'. A user-centered design (UCD), also known as a systems approach or the usability engineering life cycle aims to improve the user-system.

Design of ergonomics experiments
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There is a specific series of steps that should be used in order to properly design an ergonomics experiment. First, one should select a problem that has practical impact. The problem should support or test a current theory. The user should select one or a few dependent variable(s) which usually measures safety, health, and/or physiological performance. Independent variable(s) should also be chosen at different levels. Normally, this involves paid participants, the existing environment, equipment, and/or software. When testing the users, one should give careful instructions describing the method or task and then get voluntary consent. The user should recognize all the possible combination's and interactions to notice the many differences that could occur. Multiple observations and trials should be conducted and compared to maximize the best results. Once completed, redesigning within and between subjects should be done to vary the data. It is often that permission is needed from the Institutional Review Board before an experiment can be done. A mathematical model should be used so that the data will be clear once the experiment is completed.

The experiment starts with a pilot test. Make sure in advance that the subjects understand the test, the equipment works, and that the test is able to be finished within the given time. When the experiment actually begins, the subjects should be paid for their work. All times and other measurements should be carefully measured and recorded. Once all the data is compiled, it should be analyzed, reduced, and formatted in the right way. A report explaining the experiment should be written. It should often display statistics including an ANOVA table, plots, and means of central tendency. A final paper should be written and edited ,after numerous drafts to ensure an adequate report is the final product.

Ergonomics in the workplace
Bilaterally symmetric operating areas of the stationary human body

Outside of the discipline itself, the term 'ergonomics' is generally used to refer to physical ergonomics as it relates to the workplace (as in for example ergonomic chairs and keyboards). Ergonomics in the workplace has to do largely with the safety of employees, both long and short-term. Ergonomics can help reduce costs by improving safety. This would decrease the money paid out in workers’ compensation. For example, over five million workers sustain overextension injuries per year. Through ergonomics, workplaces can be designed so that workers do not have to overextend themselves and the manufacturing industry could save billions in workers’ compensation.

Workplaces may either take the reactive or proactive approach when applying ergonomics practices. Reactive ergonomics is when something needs to be fixed, and corrective action is taken. Proactive ergonomics is the process of seeking areas that could be improved and fixing the issues before they become a large problem. Problems may be fixed through equipment design, task design, or environmental design. Equipment design changes the actual, physical devices used by people. Task design changes what people do with the equipment. Environmental design changes the environment in which people work, but not the physical equipment they use.

Fields of ergonomics

Engineering psychology

Engineering psychology is an interdisciplinary part of ergonomics and studies the relationships of people to machines, with the intent of improving such relationships.

Macroergonomics

Macroergonomics is an approach to ergonomics that emphasizes a broad system view of design, examining organizational environments, culture, history, and work goals. It deals with the physical design of tools and the environment. It is the study of the society/technology interface and their consequences for relationships, processes, and institutions. It also deals with the optimization of the designs of organizational and work systems through the consideration of personnel, technological, and environmental variables and their interactions. The goal of macroergonomics is a completely efficient work system at both the macro- and micro-ergonomic level which results in improved productivity, and employee satisfaction, health, safety, and commitment. It analyzes the whole system, finds how each element should be placed in the system, and considers all aspects for a fully efficient system. A misplaced element in the system can lead to total failure.

History

Macroergonomics, also known as organizational design and management factors, deals with the overall design of work systems. This domain did not begin to receive recognition as a sub-discipline of ergonomics until the beginning of the 1980s. The idea and current perspective of the discipline was the work of the U.S. Human Factors Society Select Committee on the Future of Human Factors, 1980-2000. This committee was formed to analyze trends in all aspects of life and to look at how they would impact ergonomics over the following 20 years. The developments they found include:

1. Breakthroughs in technology that would change the nature of work, such as the desktop computer,
2. The need for organizations to adapt to the expectations and needs of this more mature workforce,
3. Differences between the post-World War II generation and the older generation regarding their expectations the nature of the new workplace,
4. The inability of solely microergonomics to achieve reductions in lost-time accidents and injuries and increases in productivity,
5. Increasing workplace liability litigation based on safety design deficiencies.

These predictions have become and continue to become reality. The macroergonomic intervention in the workplace has been particularly effective in establishing a work culture that promotes and sustains performance and safety improvements.

Methods[6]

* Cognitive Walkthrough Method: This method is a usability inspection method in which the evaluators can apply user perspective to task scenarios to identify design problems. As applied to macroergonomics, evaluators are able to analyze the usability of work system designs to identify how well a work system is organized and how well the workflow is integrated.
* Kansei Method: This is a method that transforms consumer’s responses to new products into design specifications. As applied to macroergonomics, this method can translate employee’s responses to changes to a work system into design specifications.
* High Integration of Technology, Organization, and People (HITOP): This is a manual procedure done step-by-step to apply technological change to the workplace. It allows managers to be more aware of the human and organizational aspects of their technology plans, allowing them to efficiently integrate technology in these contexts.
* Top Modeler: This model helps manufacturing companies identify the organizational changes needed when new technologies are being considered for their process.
* Computer-integrated Manufacturing, Organization, and People System Design (CIMOP): This model allows for evaluating computer-integrated manufacturing, organization, and people system design based on knowledge of the system.
* Anthropotechnology: This method considers analysis and design modification of systems for the efficient transfer of technology from one culture to another.
* Systems Analysis Tool (SAT): This is a method to conduct systematic trade-off evaluations of work-system intervention alternatives.
* Macroergonomic Analysis of Structure (MAS): This method analyzes the structure of work systems according to their compatibility with unique sociotechnical aspects.
* Macroergonomic Analysis and Design (MEAD): This method assesses work-system processes by using a ten-step process.
* Virtual Manufacturing and Response Surface Methodology (VMRSM).[7]: This method uses computerized tools and statistical analysis for workstation design.

Neonatal ergonomics

Neonatal ergonomics is the field that studies the newborn's development (premature, ill, low birth weight, or healthy newborn) in his or her environment, whether in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit or at home, and in an incubator, bed or in Kangaroo Care. This field enhances the quality of life of the baby by using ergonomics principles and best practice by providing sound physical/musculoskeletal, physiological, neurological, and psychological/social/emotional development, and decreasing life threatening events that may be caused by poor habitat/environment, such as bradycardia/apnea of prematurity.

Seating ergonomics

The best way to reduce pressure in the back is to be in a standing position. However, there are times when you need to sit. When sitting, the main part of the body weight is transferred to the seat. Some weight is also transferred to the floor, back rest, and armrests. Where the weight is transferred is the key to a good seat design. When the proper areas are not supported, sitting in a seat all day can put unwanted pressure on the back causing pain.

The lumbar (bottom five vertebrate in the spine) needs to be supported to decrease disc pressure. Providing both a seat back that inclines backwards and has a lumbar support is critical to prevent excessive low back pressures. The combination which minimizes pressure on the lower back is having a backrest inclination of 120 degrees and a lumbar support of 5 cm. The 120 degrees inclination means the angle between the seat and the backrest should be 120 degrees. The lumbar support of 5 cm means the chair backrest supports the lumbar by sticking out 5 cm in the lower back area. One drawback to creating an open body angle by moving the backrest backwards is that it takes ones body away from the tasking position, which typically involves leaning inward towards a desk or table. One solution to this problem can be found in the kneeling chair. A proper kneeling chair creates the open body angle by lowering the angle of the lower body, keeping the spine in alignment and the sitter properly positioned to task. The benefit of this position is that if one leans inward, the body angle remains 90 degrees or wider. One mis-perception regarding kneeling chairs is that the body's weight bears on the knees, and thus users with poor knees cannot use the chair. This misperception has led to a generation of kneeling chairs that attempt to correct this by providing a horizontal seating surface with an ancillary knee pad. This design wholly defeats the purpose of the chair. The Variable balans is recognized as being the original modern kneeling chair, from which all subsequent designs have been derived. Created by Peter Opsvik, in the balans, some of the weight bears on the shins, not the knees, but the primary function of the shin rests (knee rests) are to keep one from falling forward out of the chair. Most of the weight remains on the buttocks. Another way to keep the body from falling forward is with a saddle seat. This type of seat is generally seen in some sit stand stools, which seek to emulate the riding or saddle position of a horseback rider, the first "job" involving extended periods of sitting.

Another key to reducing lumbar disc pressure is the use of armrests. They help by putting the force of your body not entirely on the seat and back rest, but putting some of this pressure on the armrests. Armrest needs to be adjustable in height to assure shoulders are not overstressed.

Organizations

The International Ergonomics Association (IEA) is a federation of ergonomics and human factors societies from around the world. The mission of the IEA is to elaborate and advance ergonomics science and practice, and to improve the quality of life by expanding its scope of application and contribution to society. As of September 2008, the International Ergonomics Association has 46 federated societies and 2 affiliated societies.

The International Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in the aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle industries. The Society is a standards development organization for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds, including cars, trucks, boats, aircraft, and others. The Society of Automotive Engineers has established a number of standards used in the automotive industry and elsewhere. It encourages the design of vehicles in accordance with established Human Factors principles. It is one the most influential organizations with respect to Ergonomics work in Automotive design. This society regularly holds conferences which address topics spanning all aspects of Human Factors/Ergonomics.[citation needed]

In the UK the professional body for ergonomists is The Institute of Ergonomics and Human Factors and in the USA it is the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. In Europe professional certification is managed by the Centre for Registration of European Ergonomists (CREE). In the USA the Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics performs this function. In Canada the professional body for ergonomists is the Association of Canadian Ergonomists.

The Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) is the world's largest organization of professionals devoted to the science of human factors and ergonomics. The Society's mission is to promote the discovery and exchange of knowledge concerning the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds.[8]

In the UK, one organisation which has a long history of the practical application of ergonomics is the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM). Founded by the coal industry in 1969, from the outset the IOM employed ergonomics staff to apply ergonomics principles to the design of mining machinery and environments. To this day, the IOM continues ergonomics activities, especially in the fields of musculoskeletal disorders; heat stress and the ergonomics of personal protective equipment (PPE). Like many in occupational ergonomics, the demands and requirements of an ageing UK workforce are a growing concern and interest to IOM ergonomists.

Reference:
1. ^ab International Ergonomics Association. What is Ergonomics. Website. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
2. ^ Berkeley Lab. Integrated Safety Management: Ergonomics. Website. Retrieved 9 July 2008.
3. ^ Top 10 Emerging Practice Areas To Watch in the New Millennium, article on American Occupational Therapy Association web site [sic]
4. ^ Marmaras, N., Poulakakis, G. and Papakostopoulos, V. (1999). Ergonomic design in ancient Greece. Applied Ergonomics, 30 (4), pp. 361-368.
5. ^ Technical Groups page at HFES Web site
6. ^ Brookhuis, K., Hedge, A., Hendrick, H., Salas, E., and Stanton, N. (2005). Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics Models. Florida: CRC Press.
7. ^ Ben-Gal et al. (2002), The Ergonomic Design of Workstation Using Rapid Prototyping and Response Surface Methodology. IIE Transactions on Design and Manufacturing, 34(4), 375-391. Available at: http://www.eng.tau.ac.il/~bengal/Ergonomics_Paper.pdf
8. ^ Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. http://www.hfes.org/

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